Introduction to the Uzbek Language

by Mark Dickens

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Pronunciation
Wordlist
Grammar

A. Pronunciation

Uzbek is currently written in the Cyrillic script, which has been in use since 1940, and the Latin script, which has been introduced in the last couple of years and is now being used more and more, though most people only know the Cyrillic script and most signs and written materials are still only in Cyrillic. In general, words are pronounced as they sound in the Latin script, but some explanation is necessary for a few of the sounds represented by certain Latin letters. Below are those sounds which are not found in English or which require some explanation. Note that stress in Uzbek is generally on the last syllable, except for a few suffixes, which are never stressed. In the wordlist below, stressed syllables are underlined. Note also that two adjacent vowels are pronounced separately (e.g. ñîàò “soat” is pronounced like English “saw at”), but a vowel followed by “y” becomes a diphthong (e.g. áîé “boy” is pronounced the same as English “boy”).


 

Cyrillic

Latin

Pronunciation

À à

A a

"a" as in "cat"

Å å

Ye ye, E e

"ye" as in "yet" at the beginning of a word, "e" as in "let" elsewhere

¨ ¸

Yo yo

"ya" as in "yawn"

È è

I I

"i" as in "pin"

Î î

O o

"o" as in "pot"

Ð ð

R r

a "trilled r" (like in Scottish), or, between vowels, a "flapped r" (like "dd" in "ladder" in normal speech)

Ó ó

U u

"oo" as in "cool"

Õ õ

X x

"ch" as in German "Bach" or Scottish "loch"

Ý ý

E e

"e" as in "let"

Þ þ

Yu yu

"yu" as in "you"

ß ÿ

Ya ya

"ya" as in "yak"

Œ œ

O' o'

"u" as in "put" (also represents a second vowel in some dialects, similar to "au" as in "caught"

Š š

Q q

like a "k" but further back in the mouth

Ђ ђ

G' g'

like a French "r" (voiced version of "x")

Ќ ќ

H h

like “h”

B. Wordlist

Below are 250 of the most common Uzbek words, in both Cyrillic and Latin script, along with their definitions, arranged according to the different parts of speech (categories of words). Note that some of these words could be listed in two different categories (e.g. ќîçèð “now” is both a noun and an adverb, òåç “quick, quickly” is both an adjective and an adverb).

1. Pronouns

ìåí

men

I

ñåí

sen

you (singular, informal)

ó

u

he/she/it, that

áó

bu

this

ñèç

siz

you (plural, formal)

áèç

biz

we

óëàð

ular

they

2. Adjectives

ÿõøè

yaxshi

good

çœð

zo'r

excellent

¸ìîí

yomon

bad

œðòà÷à

o'rtacha

in the middle

êàòòà

katta

big

êè÷êèíà

kichkina

small

ÿíãè

yangi

new

ýñêè

eski

old (thing)

¸ø

yosh

young

šàðè

qari

old (person)

êàñàë

kasal

sick

ñîђ

sog'

healthy

šèììàò

qimmat

expensive

àðçîí

arzon

cheap

èññèš

issiq

hot

ñîâóš

sovuq

cold

ñåêèí

sekin

slow

òåç

tez

fast

ÿšèí

yaqin

close

óçîš

uzoq

far

òœђðè

to'g'ri

correct, straight

áîé

boy

rich

õóðñàíä

xursand

happy

÷èðîéëè

chiroyli

beautiful, good-looking

òîçà

toza

clean

òàé¸ð

tayyor

ready

øèðèí

shirin

sweet

êàì

kam

small, few, little

îçãèíà

ozgina

a little

êœï

ko'p

much, many

ќàð

har

each

ќàììà

hamma

all

áóòóí

butun

whole

ќå÷

hech

none

êœïðîš

ko'proq

more

êåðàê

kerak

necessary

ìóìêèí

mumkin

possible

œíã

o'ng

right

÷àï

chap

left

áîøšà

boshqa

other

ýíã

eng

most

šîðà

qora

black

îš

oq

white

ñàðèš

sariq

yellow

šèçèë

qizil

red

êœê

ko'k

blue

3. Numbers

áèð

bir

one

èêêè

ikki

two

ó÷

uch

three

òœðò

to'rt

four

áåø

besh

five

îëòè

olti

six

åòòè

yetti

seven

ñàêêèç

sakkiz

eight

òœššèç

to'qqiz

nine

ϒ

o'n

ten

éèãèðìà

yigirma

twenty

œòòèç

o'ttiz

thirty

šèðš

qirq

forty

ýëëèê

ellik

fifty

îëòìèø

oltmish

sixty

åòìèø

yetmish

seventy

ñàêñîí

sakson

eighty

òœšñîí

to'qson

ninety

þç

yuz

hundred

ìèíã

ming

thousand 

ÿðèì

yarim

half

4. Adverbs

áó åðäà

bu yerda

here

ó åðäà

u yerda

there

ќîçèð

hozir

now, wait a minute

ýðòà

erta

early

êå÷

kech

late

êå÷à

kecha

yesterday

áóãóí

bugun

today

ýðòàãà

ertaga

tomorrow

áèðãà

birga

together

æóäà

juda

very

ôàšàò

faqat

only

ÿíà

yana

again

ќàëè

hali

still, yet

5. Question words

íèìà

nima

what

êèì

kim

who

šàåðäà

qayerda

where

šàåðãà

qayerga

where to

šàíè

qani

where (exactly)

šà÷îí

qachon

when

íèìàãà

nimaga

why

šàíäàé

qanday

how, what kind of

šàí÷à

qancha

how much, how many

íå÷à

necha

how much, how many

šàéñè

qaysi

which

6. Conjunctions

àãàð

agar

if

âà

va

and

¸êè

yoki

or

ëåêèí

lekin

but

÷óíêè

chunki

because

ќàì

ham

also

7. Postpositions

áèëàí

bilan

with

¸íèäà

yonida

beside

è÷èäà

ichida

inside

êåéèí

keyin

after

îëäèí

oldin

before

óñòèäà

ustida

on top of

ó÷óí

uchun

for

ќàšèäà

haqida

about

8. Verb stems

àéò-

ayt-

say

áåð-

ber-

give

áèë-

bil-

know (something)

áîð-

bor-

go

áœë-

bo'l-

be, become

ãàïèð-

gapir-

speak

äàì îë-

dam ol-

rest

äàðñ áåð-

dars ber-

teach (give lessons)

å-

ye-

eat

¸ç-

yoz-

write

¸ï-

yop-

close

¸ò-

yot-

lie down

è÷-

ich-

drink

èøîí-

ishon-

believe

êåë-

kel-

come

êåò-

ket-

go, leave

êèð-

kir-

enter

êóò-

kut-

wait

êœð-

ko'r-

see

îë-

ol-

take

îëèá áîð-

olib bor-

take (to someone)

îëèá êåë-

olib kel-

bring

î÷-

och-

open

ñîë-

sol-

put in

ñîò-

sot-

sell

ñîòèá îë-

sotib ol-

buy

òóð-

tur-

stand, live

òóøóí-

tushun-

understand

÷èš-

chiq-

exit, go out

ýøèò-

eshit-

listen

þâ-

yuv-

wash

þð-

yur-

walk

œðãàí-

o'rgan-

learn, study

Ϙ-

o't-

pass

œòèð-

o'tir-

sit down

šàéò-

qayt-

return

šèë-

qil-

do, make

šœé-

qo'y-

put

9. Nouns

à¸ë

ayol

woman

áàõò

baxt

happiness

áîëà

bola

child

áîçîð

bozor

outdoor market

âàšò

vaqt

time

ãœøò

go'sht

meat

äàðñ

dars

lesson

äåðàçà

deraza

window

äåâîð

devor

wall

äœêîí

do'kon

shop, store

äœñò

do'st

friend

åð

yer

ground

¸ðäàì

yordam

help

¸ђ

yog'

butter, oil

æàâîá

javob

answer

èñì

ism

name

èø÷è

ishchi

worker

éèë

yil

year

êàëèò

kalit

key

êå÷šóðóí

kechqurun

evening

êèéèì

kiyim

clothing

êèòîá

kitob

book

êèøè

kishi

person

êóí

kun

day

êœ÷à

ko'cha

street

ìàêòàá

maktab

school

ìàøèíà

mashina

car

ìåâà

meva

fruit

ìåќìîí

mehmon

guest

íàðñà

narsa

thing

íîí

non

bread

îâšàò

ovqat

food

îèëà

oila

family

îé

oy

moon, month

îíà

ona

mother

îòà

ota

father

îø

osh

food, rice pilaf

ïè¸ëà

piyola

cup

ïóë

pul

money

ðó÷êà

ruchka

pen

ñàâîë

savol

question

ñàáçàâîò

sabzavot

vegetable

ñîàò

soat

hour, watch, clock

ñòîë

stol

table

ñòóë

stul

chair

ñóâ

suv

water

ñóìêà

sumka

bag

ñóò

sut

milk

ñœç

so'z

word

òàëàáà

talaba

student

òóàëåò

tualet

toilet

òóç

tuz

salt

óé

uy

house

õîíà

xona

room

õîòèí

xotin

wife

Õóäî

Xudo

God

÷îé

choy

tea

øàêàð

shakar

sugar

øàќàð

shahar

city

ýð

er

husband

ýðêàê

erkak

man

ýðòàëàá

ertalab

morning

ýøèê

eshik

door

þðàê

yurak

heart

œšèòóâ÷è

o'qituvchi

teacher

œђèë

o'g'il

son

šèç

qiz

daughter

šèøëîš

qishloq

village

šîøèš

qoshiq

spoon

šîђîç

qog'oz

paper

šœøíè

qo'shni

neighbour

ќàôòà

hafta

week

ќîâëè

hovli

courtyard

10. Useful Words and Expressions

Aðçèìàéäè.

Arzimaydi.

You're welcome.

áîð

bor

existent, there is/are

Áó íèìà?

Bu nima?

What is this?

Áœïòè.

Bo'pti.

Okay, well.

èëòèìîñ

iltimos

please (request)

霚

yo'q

no, not, there is/are not

Kå÷èðàñèç.

Kechirasiz.

Excuse me.

Màéëè.

Mayli.

Well, all right

Màíà.

Mana.

Look, here.

ìàðќàìàò

marhamat

please (offering)

Ìåíãà ¸šäè.

Mengayoqdi.

I like it.

Íå÷à ¸øäàñèç?

Necha yoshdasiz?

How old are you?

Îèëàíãèç áîðìè?

Oilangiz bormi?

Do you have a family?

ðàќìàò

rahmat

thank you

Càëîì.

Salom.

Hello (literally, peace).

Ñèçãà ¸šäèìè?

Sizga yoqdimi?

Do you like it?

Ñîàò íå÷à?

Soat necha?

What time is it?

Xàéð.

Xayr.

Goodbye.

Õóø êåëèáñèç.

Xush kelibsiz.

Welcome.

Xϕ.

Xo'p.

Okay, very well.

ýìàñ

emas

not

ßõøèìèñèç?

Yaxshimisiz?

Are you well?

Šàåðäà èøëàéñèç?

Qayerda ishlaysiz?

Where do you work?

Šàåðäàíñèç?

Qayerdansiz?

Where are you from?

Šàëàéñèç?

Qalaysiz?

How are you?

Šà÷îí êåëèäèíãèç?

Qachon keldingiz?

When did you come?

ќà

ha

yes

C. Grammar

1. Word order is Subject-Object-Verb:

Men kitob yozdim (I book wrote): I wrote a book.

2. Adjectives come before nouns:

U yosh bola (He young child): He is a young child.

3. Adverbs come before verbs:

U tez gapirdi (He quickly spoke): He spoke quickly.

4. Question words are placed in the sentence where the answer will go:

Bu kim? Bu Aziz (This who? This Aziz): Who is this? This is Aziz.

5. Postpositions work like prepositions in English, except they come after the noun:

Biz non haqida gapirdik (We bread about talked): We talked about bread.

6. Endings to add to the verbstem to speak in the Present-Future Tense:

-aman   I   Kelaman   I come/will come.

-asan   you (singular/informal)   Kelasan   You come/will come.

-adi   he/she/it   Keladi   He comes/will come.

-amiz   we   Kelamiz   We come/will come.

-asiz   you (plural/formal)   Kelasiz   You come/will come.

-adilar   they   Keladilar   They come/will come.

7. Endings to add to the verbstem to speak in the Past Tense:

-dim   I   Keldim   I came.

-ding   you (singular/informal)   Kelding   You came.

-di   he/she/it   Keldi   He came.

-dik   we   Keldik   We came.

-dingiz   you (plural/formal)   Keldingiz   You came.

-dilar   they   Keldilar   They came.

8. To make a verb into a command:

Kel!   Come! (no suffix on verbstem)

Keling!   Come! (more polite)

Kelinglar!   Come! (even more polite)

9. To make a verb negative:

Kel-   to come   Keldim   I came.

Kelma-   to not come   Kelmadim   I didn’t come.

10. To make a verb into a “yes/no” question:

Keladi   He will come.   Keladimi?   Will he come?

Keldi   He came.   Keldimi?   Did he come?

11. To ask a “yes/no” question with the verb “to be”:

Men yaxshimanmi?   Am I well?   Biz yaxshimizmi?   Are we well?

Sen yaxshimisan?   Are you well?   Siz yaxshimisiz?   Are you well?

U yaxshimi?   Is he well?   Ular yaxshimi?   Are they well?

12. To make a noun plural:

kitob   book

kitoblar   books

13. To express location at, movement towards or away from an object:

uy   house   uyda   at the house

uyga   to the house   uydan   from the house

Maktabdan uyga bordim.   I went from the school to the house.

14. Endings to add to express possession:

-im   my   kitobim   my book

-ing   your (singular/informal)   kitobing   your book

-i   his/her/its   kitobi   his/her book

-imiz   our   kitobimiz   our book

-ingiz   your (plural/formal)   kitobingiz   your book

-ilar   their   kitobilar   their book
 
 

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