Outline of Uzbek Grammar[1]

Translation from Uzbek by Mark Dickens

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1. So’z turkumlari (Parts of Speech)

a) Mustaqil so’z turkumlari (independent parts of speech)

i) Ot (noun)

ii) Sifat (adjective)

iii) Son (numeral)

iv) Olmosh (pronoun)

v) Fe’l (verb)

vi) Ravish (adverb)

b) Yordamchi so’z turkumlari (helping parts of speech)

i) Ko’makchi (postposition)

ii) Bog’lovchi (conjunction)

iii) Yuklama (particle)
 

2. Otlar (Nouns)

a) Atoqli otlar (proper nouns)

b) Turdosh otlar (common nouns)

c) Egalik affikslari (possessive affixes)

d) Kelishiklar (case endings)

i) Bosh kelishik (nominative case)--

ii) Qaratqich kelishigi (genitive case)-ning

iii) Jo’nalish kelishigi (dative case)-ga, -ka, -qa

iv) Tushum kelishigi (accusative case)-ni

v) O’rin-payt kelishigi (locative case)-da

vi) Chiqish kelishigi (ablative case)-dan

e) Otlarning yasalishi (noun formation)

i) People: -chi, -dosh, -kash, -bon, -paz, -dor, -shunos, -xon, -soz, -kor

ii) Places: -zor, -iston, -xona

iii) Abstract things: -lik, -chilik

f) Qo’shma otlar (compound nouns)

g) Juft otlar (paired nouns)

h) Qisqartma otlar (abbreviated nouns)
 

3. Sifatlar (Adjectives)

a) Sifat darajalari (comparative and superlative)

b) Sifatlarning yasalishi (adjective formation)

i) -li, -siz, -chan, -chil, -aki

ii) Russian (Latinate) suffixes: -ik, -iv, -al, -ion

iii) -ik, -iq, -uk, -uq, -ma, -qoq, -choq, -chiq, -kir, -gir, -qir, -g’ir, -g’in, -kin, -gin, -qin, -ag’on, -g’ich, -gich, -mon

iv) ser-, kam-, nim-, g’ayri-, ko’p-, umum-, butun-
 

4. Sonlar (Numerals)

a) Dona sonlar (counting numerals): -ta

b) Taqsim sonlar (division numerals): -tadan

c) Jamlovchi sonlar (collective numerals): -ov, -ala, -lab

d) Kasr sonlar (fraction numerals): -dan

e) Tartib sonlar (ordinal numerals): -(i)nchi

f) Vaqt hisobi (telling time)
 

5. Olmoshlar (Pronouns)

a) Kishilik olmoshlari (personal pronouns): men, sen, u, biz, siz, ular

b) O’zlik olmoshlari (reflexive pronouns): o’zim, o’zing, o’zi, o’zimiz, o’zingiz, o’zlari

c) Ko’rsatish olmoshlari (demonstrative pronouns):u, bu, shu, o’sha, mana, mana bu, ana, ana u

d) So’rok olmoshlari (interrogative pronouns): kim, nima, qanday, qanaqa, qaysi, qachon, qancha, necha, nechta, nechanchi

e) Belgilash olmoshlari (definite pronouns): har kim, har nima, har qaysi, hamma, barcha

f) Bo’lishsizlik olmoshlari (negative pronouns): hech kim, hech nima, hech qachon, hech qaysi, hech qaerda, hech qanday

g) Gumon olmoshlari (indefinite pronouns): kimdir, nimadir, qandaydir, qanchadir, allakim, allanima, allaqanday, allaqancha, allaqaysi, allanechuk, bir necha, bir qancha, bir nima, bir narsa, ba’zi, birov, biron
 

6. Fe’llar (Verbs)

a) Fe’lning noaniq formasi (base/indefinite form of the verb)

b) O’timli va o’timsiz fe’llar(transitive and intransitive verbs)

c) Fe’l nisbatlari (voices)

i) Aniq nisbat (active voice)

ii) O’zlik nisbat (reflexive voice)

iii) Majhul nisbat (passive voice)

iv) Birgalik nisbat (reciprocal voice)

v) Orttirma nisbat (causative voice)

d) Sifatdoshlar (participles)

i) O’tgan zamon sifatdoshi (past participle): -gan, -kan, -qan

ii) Hozirgi zamon sifatdoshi (present participle): -yotgan

iii) Hozirgi-kelasi zamon sifatdoshi (present-future participle): -adigan, -ydigan

iv) Kelasi zamon sifatdoshi (future participle): -ar, -r, -mas

e) Ravishdoshlar (gerunds)

i) -a, -y

ii) -b, -ib

f) Harakat nomi (verbal nouns)

i) -sh, -ish, -v, -uv, -moq

ii) Use with kerak, mumkin, uchun

g) Fe’l mayllari (moods)

i) Buyruq mayli (imperative mood)

ii) Shart mayli (conditional mood)

h) Fe’llarning zamoni (tenses)

i) Hozirgi-kelasi zamon fe’li (present-future tense): kelaman

ii) Hozirgi zamon davom fe’li (present continuous tense): kelayapman, kelmoqdaman

iii) Aniq o’tgan zamon fe’li (definite/simple past tense): keldim

iv) Yaqin o’tgan zamon fe’li (recent past/present perfect tense): kelganman

v) Uzoq o’tgan zamon fe’li (distant past/past perfect tense): kelgan edim

vi) O’tgan zamon davom fe’li (past continuous tense): kelar edim

vii) Kelasi zamon fe’li (future tense): kelarman

viii) Kelasi zamon maqsad fe’li (future intentional tense): kelmoqchiman

i) Fe’llarning yasalishi (verb formation)

j) Qo’shma fe’l (compound verbs)

i) olmoq (-a, -b)

ii) bermoq (-a, -b)

iii) qolmoq (-a, -b)

iv) bo’lmoq (-b)

v) chiqmoq (-b)

vi) yubormoq (-b)

vii) qo’ymoq (-b)

viii) yurmoq (-b)

ix) o’tirmoq (-b)

x) turmoq (-b)

xi) kelmoq (-b)
 

7. Ravishlar (Adverbs)

a) Holat ravishi (adverbs of manner)

b) Payt ravishi (adverbs of time)

c) O’rin ravishi (adverbs of place)

d) Daraja-miqdor ravishi (adverbs of degree)
 

8. Ko’makchilar (Postpositions)

a) Asl ko’makchilar (basic postpositions: only used as postpositions): bilan, uchun, sari, singari, kabi, uzra, sayin, yanglig’

b) Ot ko’makchilar (noun postpositions: also used as nouns, adjectives or adverbs): old, orqa, yon, o’rta, tomon, ust, past, tashqari, burun, ilgari, keyin, oldin, beri, buyon, bo’yicha, sababli, qarshi

c) Fe’l ko’makchilar (verb postpositions: formed from verbs): ko’ra, yarasha, qarab, boshlab, tortib, qarama, qaraganda
 

9. Bog’lovchilar (Conjunctions)

a) Teng bog’lovchilar (co-ordinating conjunctions)

i) Biriktiruv bog’lovchilar (combining conjunctions): va, ham, hamda, bilan, esa, bo’lsa, bo’lmasa, -da

ii) Zidlov bog’lovchilar (contrasting conjunctions): ammo, lekin, biroq

iii) Ayiruv bog’lovchilar (disjunctive conjunctions): yo, yoki, yoxud, ba’zan... ba’zan..., goh... goh...

b) Ergashtiruvchi bog’lovchilar (subordinating conjunctions): chunki, shuning uchun, go’yo, agar
 

10. Yuklamalar (Particles)

a) So’z-yuklamalar (word particles): hatto, nahotki, axir

b) Affiks-yuklamalar (affix particles): -gina, -mi, -chi, -da, -oq, -ku, -dir
 

11. Modal so’zlar (Modal Words)

a) albatta, shubhasiz, haqiqatan, ,darhaqiqat

b) ehtimol, balki, hoynahon, aftidan, chamasi

c) kerak, lozim, zarur, darkor

d) bor, mayli, xo’p, , to’g’ri, tuzuk

e) yo’q

f) demak, xullas, modomiki

g) darvoqe, aytgandek, aytmoqchi

h) afsus, attang, esiz
 

12. Undov so’zlar (Exclamations)

a) e, eh, ey, aha, oh, uh, him, he, ha, uf, o’ho’, ura

b) tu-tu-tu, beh-beh, ho’o’sh, pish-pish, mosh-mosh, quray-quray, bah-bah, kisht, chu, ho’o’k
 

13. Taqlidiy so’zlar (Onomatopoeic Words)

a) tars-turs, qars-qurs, yalt-yult, gumbur-gumbur, do’p-do’p

b) dir-dir, lip-lip, gup-gup, duv-duv, shuv-shuv, qult-qult, g’ir-g’ir, yalt-yalt, mo’lt-mo’lt, miq-miq



[1] Sources: M. Usmonova, E. Azlarov and Gh. Sharipov, O’zbek Tili (Toshkent: O’qituvchi, 1991).
 
 
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