Orthographic Rules For The Uzbek Language

Translation from Uzbek by Chris Duff

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The "Principal Orthographic Rules For The Uzbek Language" is a translation of the Uzbekistan Cabinet of Minister's Resolution No. 339, of August 24, 1995 with its accompanying addendum. In addition to being an English language version of the original, this translation provides glosses for the 850 Uzbek terms used to illustrate the rules concerning the new orthography. This will assist specialists who are familiar with Turkish or other languages, but not with Uzbek. The translation consists of the following parts:
 
I.THE UZBEKISTAN CABINET OF MINISTER'S RESOLUTION NO. 339
 
II. THE UZBEK ALPHABET BASED ON THE LATIN SCRIPT
 
III.THE PRINCIPAL ORTHOGRAPHIC RULES FOR THE UZBEK LANGUAGE
Vowels (1-7)
Consonants (8-32)
Stems and Suffixes (33-37)
Words Written as One Word (38-50)
Words Written with a Hyphen (51-56)
Words Written Separately (57-65)
Capitalization (66-74)
Hyphenation (75-82)
 
IV.TRANSLATOR'S NOTES [1-12]
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PLEASE NOTE:
 
This translation may be freely distributed in any form to any one. However, it may not be printed in any publication unless permission has been granted by the Center for Academic Research (CAR). When appropriate, CAR should receive proper recognition for its work on this project.
 
It is hoped the translation will not only serve as a valuable and timely reference tool for linguists, but that it will also generate discussion among specialists and elicit feedback from them on the wide range of subjects which the orthographic change touches upon.
 
The work of the translation was carried out by the combined efforts of Center for Academic Research staff. The following individuals were ultimately responsible for the technical work of the translation:
Chris Duff, Translator
Aziza Tuychibayeva, Assistant Translator
 
Feedback, comments and corrections are cordially requested on any aspects related to the adoption of Resolution 339.
Chris Duff
Email: caduff@mail.com
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I.THE UZBEKISTAN CABINET OF MINISTER'S RESOLUTION NO. 339
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24 August 1995
No. 339
Tashkent
 
THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN CABINET OF MINISTERS RESOLUTION CONCERNING THE RATIFICATION OF THE PRINCIPAL ORTHOGRAPHIC RULES OF THE UZBEK LANGUAGE
 
In order to carry out the law for the implementation of the Uzbek alphabet based on the Latin script, the Cabinet of Ministers has decided the following:
 
1. The principal orthographic rules of the Uzbek Language will be carried out (and an addendum is included).
 
2. The ministries, offices, local governments, administrative offices, and media of the Republic will establish and follow precautions concerning the implementation of these rules for all types of correspondence, press and office related work using the Uzbek alphabet based on the Latin script.
 
3. The Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the Ministry of Higher and Specialized Secondary Education, the Ministry of Public Education and the State Press Committee will prepare in three months time an orthographic dictionary of the Uzbek language in the form of hand book for schools and a dictionary of names and places and they will consider the possibilities for publishing.
 
4. The supervision of the implementation of this resolution will be entrusted to the Departments of Education and Science, Social Affairs and the Department of Culture of the Cabinet of Ministers.
 
I. Karimov, Chair, Cabinet of Ministers
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II. THE UZBEK ALPHABET BASED ON THE LATIN SCRIPT
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A   B   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   X   Y   Z   O'   G'   Sh   Ch   Ng
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III.THE PRINCIPAL ORTHOGRAPHIC RULES FOR THE UZBEK LANGUAGE
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VOWELS
 
1. The letter A a:
is written to represent the front open vowel [1] in words such as aka (elderbrother), alanga (flame), aloqa (relationship), og'a (elder brother), sentabr (September), noyabr (November).
In words like bahor (spring), zamon (era), savol (question), gavda (trunk, torso, body, build), vasvasa (temptation), vaqt (time), vahm (panic), the vowel in the first syllable is "a" in both speech and writing [2].
 
2. The letter O o:
is written to represent the back open vowel in words such as ona (mother), omon (safe), quyosh (sun), fido (sacrifice), baho (estimation), xola (aunt - mother's side), lotin (latin), mukofot (prize), mahorat (skill).
It is also written to represent the vowel in assimilated words such as boks (boxing), poyezd (train), tonna (ton), talon (coupon), agronom (agronomist), mikrofon (microphone), direktor (director), termos (thermos) [3].
 
3. The letter I i:
is written to represent the front close vowel in words such as ish (work), iz (track, footprint), qil (do), xirmon (threshing-floor), ilhom (inspiration), ikki (two), ixtisos (specialty), shoyi (silk), tulki (fox), volida (mother), piramida (pyramid), bilan (with), biroq (but), sira (never), qishloq (village), chiroq (lamp).
In words such as o'tin (firewood), o'rik (apricot), bo'lim (department), where the vowel "o'" occurs in the first syllable, the second syllable has an "i" in both speech and writing [4].
 
4. The letter U u:
is written to represent the back close vowel in words such as uy (home), kun (day), buzoq (calf), buloq (water well), Buxoro (Bukhara), butun (whole), uchuq (rash), usul (method), yulduz (star), mafkura (ideology), ko'zgu (mirror), uyqu (sleep), aluminiy (aluminum), yubiley (anniversary).
When the vowel "o" occurs in the first syllable of words like qovun (melon), sovun (soap), tovush (sound), yovuz (evil), qirg'ovul (pheasant), chirmovuq (general name of all climbing-plants) there is a "u" after the "v" at the beginning of the following closed syllable [5].
 
5. The letter O' o':
is written to represent the back half-close vowel in words such as o't (fire), o'q (bullet), o'zbek (Uzbek), o'simlik (plant), do'ppi (skull-cap worn in Central Asia), bo'tako'z (cornflower), semizo't (type of weed), gulko'rpa (embroidered wall hanging), noo'rin (inappropriate).
 
6. The letter E e:
is written to represent the front half-close vowel in words such as ekin (sowing), esla (remember), evara (great-grandson), ekran (screen), eksport (export), kel (come), zehn (intellect), kecha (yesterday), behi (quince), telefon (telephone), teatr (theatre), atelye (seamstress shop), e'lon (announcement), ne'mat (benefit), poyezd (train), she'r (poem).
 
7. Consecutive Vowels:
1) Sometimes "y" occurs between two vowels in speech but is not written:
a. ia: material (material), milliard (billion), radiator (radiator), tabiat (nature), shariat (Islamic religious law).

b. io: biologiya (biology), million (million), stadion (stadium), radio (radio).

c. ai: mozaika (mosaic), ukrain (Ukrainian), said (descendent of the prophet), maishat (pleasure).

d. oi: alkoloid (alkaloid), ellipsoid (elliptical), doim (always), shoir (poet), oila (family).

e. ea: teatr (theatre), okean (ocean), laureat (prize winner).

2) When the vowels "ae" or "oe" occur within a word the second vowel remains written as "e" even when it is pronounced as "y": aerostat (balloon), poema (poem).

In other cases, consecutive vowels are usually pronounced and written in the same way:

manfaat (use), kauchuk (rubber), aorta (aorta), saodat (happiness), burjua (bourgeois), shuaro (poets), inshoot (construction), sanoat (industry), vakuum (vacuum), muammo (problem), matbuot (the press), tabiiy (natural), rioya (respect).

 
CONSONANTS
 
8. The letter B b:
is written to represent the voiced labial stop [6] in words such as bobo (grandfather), bahor (spring), bir (one), majbur (obliged), zarb (hit).
Even though the spoken form is "p" in words such as kitob (book), yuzlab (hundreds), kelib (coming), the written form is "b" [7].

Even though the spoken form in words such as qibla (the relative direction of Mecca for prayer), tobla (temper) is sometimes "v" the written form is "b".

 
9. The letter P p:
is written to represent the unvoiced labial stop in words such as paxta (cotton), pichoq (knife), opa (elder sister), tepa (hill), tup (bush), yop (cover).
 
10. The letter V v:
is written to represent the voiced labial fricative in words such as ov (hunt), suv (water), kuyov (bridegroom), ovoz (voice), savol (question), volida (mother), vatan (native land).
Even though the spoken form in assimilated words such as avtobus (bus), avtomat (automate), is sometimes "f" the written form is "v".
 
11. The letter F f:
is written to represent the unvoiced labial fricative in words such as fan (science), fe'l (disposition), futbol (football), fizika (physics), asfalt (asphalt), juft (pair), insof (conscience), isrof (squandering).
Even though the spoken form is sometimes "p" in words such as fasl (season), fayz (delight), Fotima (woman's name), fursat (moment), the written form is "f".
 
12. The letter M m:
is written to represent the voiced bi-labial nasal in words such as moy (oil), muborak (blessing), tomon (side), ilhom (inspiration).
 
13. The letter D d:
is written to represent the voiced front-tongue stop in words such as dala (field), odat (custom), bunyod (creation), jiddiy (serious).
Even though the spoken form is "t" in words such as obod (well-equipped), savod (literacy), marvarid (pearl), zavod (factory), pud (16 kg. weight), sud (court), badqovoq (gloomy), badxo'r (bad taste) the written form is "d".
 
14. The letter T t:
is written to represent the unvoiced front-tongue stop in words such as tong (dawn), tun (night), butun (entire), o'tin (firewood), o't (fire), kut (wait).
 
15. The letter Z z:
is written to represent the voiced front-tongue fricative in words such as zar (gold), zamon (era), toza (clean), o'zbek (Uzbek), yoz (summer), g'oz (goose).
Even when the spoken form is "s" before an unvoiced consonant in words such as iztirob (distress), izquvar (tracker), bo'zchi (weaver), tuzsiz (unsalted), the written form is "z".
 
16. The letter S s:
is written to represent the unvoiced front-tongue fricative in words such as sog' (healthy), somon (chaff), oson (easy), asos (basis), olmos (diamond).
 
17. The combination of letters SH sh:
is written to represent the unvoiced front-tongue fricative in words such as shahar (city), shisha (glass), shodlik (happiness), ishq (love), pishiq (ripened), bosh (head), tosh (stone).
If the letters "sh" are to represent two sounds then an apostrophe is placed between them:

Is'hoq (Isaac), as'hob (interlocutor).

 
18. The letter J j:
is written to represent the voiced front-tongue mixed consonant in words such as jon (soul), jahon (world), jiyda ([bot.] Elaeangus angustifolia), tijorat (commerce), rivoj (development), vaj (reason).
It is also written to represent the voiced front-tongue fricative in words such as jurnal (magazine), projektor (projector), gijda(a light textured bread), ajdar (dragon), garaj (garage), tiraj (circulation amount).
 
19. The combination of letters Ch ch:
is written to represent the unvoiced front-tongue mixed consonant in words such as choy (tea), chevar (seamstress), chiroyli (beautiful), chaman (blossoming meadow), achchiq (bitter), uchun (for), bichiqchi (pattern-cutter), kuch (force), kech (late).
 
20. The letter R r:
is written to represent the voiced front-tongue flap in words such as rahmat (thanks), rohat (enjoyment), orom (rest), doira (circle), bor (exist(s)), diyor (homeland).
 
21. The letter L l:
is written to represent the voiced lateral consonant in words such as lola (tulip), loyiq (worthy), la'l (ruby), iloj (means), mahal (moment).
 
22. The letter N n:
is written to represent the voiced front-tongue nasal in words such as non (bread), nomus (honor), ona (mother), tana (body), bilan (with), tomon (side).
Even though the spoken form is sometimes "m" in words such as shanba (Saturday), yonbosh (side), jonbozlik (self-sacrifice), yonma-yon (side-by-side), ko'rinmaslik (invisible), the written form is "n".
 
23. The letter G g:
is written to represent the voiced back-tongue stop in words such as gul (flower), go'zal (beautiful), ega (owner), gugurt (matches), teg (bottom), eg (bend).
 
24. The letter K k:
is written to represent the unvoiced back-tongue stop in words such as ko'l (lake), ko'ylak (dress), uka (younger brother), moki (weaving shuttle), tok (grape vine), bilak (forearm).
 
25. The letter Y y:
is written to represent the middle-tongue fricative in words such as yo'l (road), yigit (youth), yetti (seven), yaxshi (good), yoz (summer), yulduz (star), tuya (camel), dunyo (world), tayyor (ready), soy (mountain-stream), tuy (feel).
 
26. The combination of letters NG ng:
is written to represent the voiced back-tongue nasal in words such as yangi (new), ko'ngil (heart), dengiz (sea), singil (younger sister), keling (come), bordingiz (you went), tong (dawn), ming (thousand), teng (equal).
 
27. The letter Q q:
is written to represent the unvoiced deep-back-tongue stop in words such as qizil (red), qimiz (fermented mare's milk), qirq (forty), haqiqiy (real), aql (mind).
 
28. The letter G' g':
is written to represent the voiced deep-back-tongue fricative in words such as g'oz (goose), bag'ir (liver), tog' (mountain).
 
29. The letter X x:
is written to represent the unvoiced deep-back-tongue fricative in words such as xabar (news), xo'roz (rooster), xohish (wish), xushnud (pleased), baxt (happiness), axborot (information), mix (nail).
 
30. The letter H h:
is written to represent the unvoiced glottal fricative in words such as hosil (harvest), hamma (all), bahor (spring), isloh (renovation), nikoh (marriage).
 
31. Consecutive consonants:
1) Even though the sounds "t" and "d" are sometimes not pronounced at the end of words such as baland (high), Samarqand (Samarkand), poyezd (train), do'st (friend), past (down), artist (artist), g'isht (brick), they are still written.
2) Even though only one consonant is pronounced at the end of words such as metall (metal), kilogramm (kilogram), kongress (congress), two letters are written. But if a suffix beginning with the same letter is added to these words one letter is dropped from the end of the word: metall+lar= metallar (metals), kilogramm+mi=kilogrammi (one kilogram of...).
 
32. The apostrophe - '
1) An apostrophe is written after a vowel in assimilated words such as a'lo (excellent), ba'zan (sometimes), ma'yus (downcast), ta'zim (reverence), ra'y (wish), ta'b (character), e'lon (announcement), e'tibor (attention), e'tiqod (persuasion), me'mor (architect), ne'mat (good thing), she'r (poem), fe'l (verb), Nu'mon (man's name), shu'la (ray) to represent a lengthening of the vowel. Even though the vowel "o'" is lengthened in words such as mo'jiza (miracle), mo'tadil (average), mo'tabar (honorable), a second apostrophe is not written.
2) An apostrophe is written before a vowel in words such as in'om (gift), san'at (art), qat'iy (definitely), mas'ul (responsible), to represent the vowel being pronounced separately from the preceding consonant.
 
STEMS AND SUFFIXES [8]
 
33. The final vowel of a word changes when a suffix is added in the following cases:
1) When the suffixes "-v", "-q" or "-qi" are added to a verb ending in the vowel "a", the vowel becomes "o" in both speech and writing:
sayla (choose) - saylov (election), sina (test) - sinov (testing), aya (spare) - ayovsiz (ruthless), so'ra (request) - so'roq (interrogative), bo'ya (paint) - bo'yoq (paint), o'yna (play) - o'ynoqi (playful), sayra (sing) - sayroqi (singing bird).

2) When the suffixes "-v" or "-q" are added to most verbs ending in the vowel "i", the vowel becomes "u" in both speech and writing:

o'qi (study) - o'quvchi (pupil), qazi (excavate) - quzuvchi (a man who excavates), sovi (cool down) - sovuq (cold).

But when the suffix "-q" is added to some verbs ending in "i", the vowel remains "i" in both speech and writing:

og'ri (ache) - og'riq (pain), qavi (quilt) - qaviq (quilted).

 
Note:
 
1) The suffix "-uv" is added to all verbs ending in a consonant:
ol (take) - oluv (taking), yoz (write) - yozuv (writing).
2) The suffix "-uq" is added to verbs which contain the vowel "u":

uz (tear off) - uzuq (torn), yut (gain) - yutuq (prize).

However, there is an "i" in the third syllable of words like uyushiq (united), burushiq (wrinkled), uchuriq (sarcasm), and bulduriq (grouse), in both speech and writing.

 
34. When a possessive suffix is added to multi-syllabic words ending in the consonants "k" or "q", and also to some words of one syllable, the consonant "k" becomes "g" and "q" becomes "g'" in both speech and writing:
tilak (a wish) - tilaging (your wish), yurak (heart) - yuragim (my heart), kubok (cup) - kubogi (his/her/their cup), bek (nobleman) - begi (his/her/their nobleman), tayoq (stick) - tayog'i (his/her/their stick), qoshiq (spoon) - qoshig'i (his/her/their spoon), yaxshiroq (better) - yaxshirog'i (best), yo'q (no) - yo'g'i (non-existent).
But when a possessive suffix is added to multi-syllabic assimilated words and to the majority of one syllable words, the sounds "k" and "q" from the root are preserved in both speech and writing:

ishtirok (participation) - ishtiroki (his/her/their participation), ocherk (essay) - ocherki (his/her/their essay), erk (freedom) - erki (his/her/their freedom), huquq (right) - huquqim (my right), ravnaq (brightness) - ravnaqi (his/her/their brightness), yuq (adhere) - yuqi (its adherence).

 
35. When the following suffixes are added a sound is either added to or omitted from the stem:
1) When a possessive suffix is added to some words like o'rin (place) qorin (stomach), burun (nose), o'g'il (son), bo'yin (neck), ko'ngil (heart); when the passive voice suffix "-il" is added to verbs like qayir (wind up), ayir (divide); and when the suffixes "-ov" and "-ala" are added to ikki (two), olti (six) and yetti (seven), the vowel in the second syllable is omitted in both speech and writing:
o'rin- o'rnim(my place), qorin- qorni (his/her/their stomach), burun - burning (your nose), o'g'il - o'g'ling (your son), ko'ngil - ko'ngli (his/her/their heart), yarim - yarmi (half), qayir - qayiril (wind up), ulug' (great) - ulg'ay (grow up), sariq (yellow) - sarg'ay (be yellow) [9], ikki - ikkov (both), ikki - ikkala (the two), yetti - yettov (seven people).

2) When the suffixes "-da", "-dan", "-day", "-dagi", "-ga", "-gacha", "-cha" are added to the pronouns u (that), bu (this), shu (this), o'sha (that) an "n" is added in both speech and writing:

unda (he/she has), bunday (such), shunda (then), o'shancha (so much).

Possessive suffixes are added to these pronouns as follows:

buningiz (this thing of yours), o'shanisi (that same one of them).

3) Possessive suffixes are added to words ending in the vowels "o","o'", "u", "e", as follows:

a. When possessive suffixes of the form "-m", "-ng", "-si", "-miz", "-ngiz", "-si", or "-lari", are added to the majority of words they do not change any sounds in the word:

bobom (my grandfather), bobong (your grandfather), bobosi (his/her grandfather), bobomiz (our grandfather), bobongiz (your grandfather), bobosi (their grandfather), or bobolari (their grandfathers), orzum (my dream), orzung (your dream), orzusi (his/her dream), orzumiz (our dream), orzungiz (your dream), orzusi (their dream).

b. When 1st or 2nd person possessive suffixes are added to the words: parvo (attention), obro' (authority), mavqe (situation), mavzu (subject), avzo (mood), a "y" is added in both speech and writing:

parvoyim (my attention), parvoying (your attention), parvoyimiz (our attention), parvoyingiz (your attention), obro'yim (my prestige), obro'ying (your prestige), obro'yimiz (our prestige), obro'yingiz (your prestige).

The 3rd person possessive suffix is added to the words: parvo, avzo, obro', mavqe, in the form "yi" but to the words: xudo (God), mavzu (subject), in the form "si":

avzoyi (his/her/their mood), mavzusi (his/her/their subject).

Words like dohiy (leader), which end in "y" also take the 3rd person possessive suffix in the form "si": dohiysi (his/her/their leader).

4) When the suffixes "-n", "-ning", "-niki" are added to the pronouns men (I), sen (you), the "n" of the suffix disappears in both speech and writing:

meni (me), mening (my), meniki (mine), seni (you), sening (your), seniki (yours).

 
36. Even though the following suffixes are pronounced in two ways they are written in one way:
1) Even though the suffixes -bon, -boz are sometimes pronounced "-von", "-voz" they are always written: "-bon", "-boz":
darvazabon (goalkeeper), masxaraboz (clown).

But the suffix "-vachcha" is always pronounced and written in the same way:

amakivachcha (paternal cousin), xolavachcha (maternal cousin).

2) Even though the first consonant in the locative and ablative case suffixes and the third person past tense suffix "-di" is sometimes pronounced "t" the written form is always "d":

ishda (at work), misdan (from copper), ketdi (he/she went), kelmabdi (he/she didn't come).

 
37. The following suffixes are pronounced and written in two or more ways:
1) The suffix "-illa" which forms verbs out of the onomatopoeic words chirilla (chirp), taqilla (knock) has the form "-ulla" in both speech and writing when added to a word which contains a "v" or "u":
shovulla (rumble), lovulla (blaze), gurulla (burn brightly).

2) The suffix "-dir" is added to one syllable words (except the word "kel") and following the causative suffix ending in "z":

quvdir (make smb. bow), egdir (cause to bend), kuldir (cause to laugh), yondir (set smth. on fire), o'tkazdir (make way (for)), tomizdir (measure smth. out in drops).

In all other cases this suffix has the form "-tir" in both speech and writing:

tiktir (have sewn), kestir (circumcise), uyaltir (cause to be ashamed), chaqirtir (cause to call).

3) The dative case suffix "-ga", the suffix denoting a limit "-gacha", the suffixes "-gach", "-guncha", "-gani", "-gudek" forming adverbs, the participial suffix "-gan", the second person imperative suffix "-gin" and the suffix "-gina" have three forms both in speech and writing:

a. When they are added to a word ending in "k" the first letter of these suffixes is "k" in both speech and writing:

tokka (to the vine), yo'lakkacha (until the passage), ko'nikkach (after becoming accustomed to), zerikkuncha (until he is bored), to'kkani (his/her/their undermining), kechikkudek (as if late), bukkan (he/she is over), ekkin ((you) plant it), kichikkina (rather little).

b. When they are added to a word ending in "q" the first letter of these suffixes is "q" in both speech and writing:

chopiqqa (to the upturned soil), qishloqqacha (until the village), yoqqach (after lighting), chiqquncha (until it goes out), chiniqqani (his/her being tempered), qo'rqqudek (as if afraid), achchiqqina (rather sour).

c. In all other cases these suffixes are written with a "g" irrespective of the final letter of the word and whether they are pronounced with a "g" or with a "k":

bargga (on to the leaf), pedagogga (to the educator), bug'ga (to steam), sog'ga (to the healthy), og'gan (water which has flowed), sig'guncha (until it fits).

[Please note: End of Part I.]

 
WORDS WRITTEN AS ONE WORD
 
38. Compound nouns or adjectives formed using the following words are written as one word: hona, noma, poya, bor, xush, ham, baxsh, kam, umum, rang, mijoz, sifat, talab:
qabulxona (waiting room), tabriknoma (congratulations), taklifnoma (invitation), bedapoya (clover field), ommabop (mass. popular), xushxabar (good news), hamsuhbat (conversation partner), orombaxsh (restful), kamquvvat (weak), bug'doyrang (brown), umumxalq (public), sovuqmijoz (someone who eats a "sovuqlik" dish), devsifat (infinitely large), suvtalab (to demand water).
 
39. Compound nouns or adjectives formed using the suffix "-ar" (negative form "-mas") are written as one word:
o'rinbosar (deputy), otboqar (groom), cho'lquvar (one who reclaims arid land), ishyoqmas (lazy), qushqo'nmas (thistle).
 
40. Nouns and verbs formed by adding a suffix to a repeated onomatopoeic word are written as one word:
pirpirak //pir-pir+ak// (windmill-like toy), bizbizak //biz-biz+ak// (buzzing toy), hayhayla //hay-hay+la// (to issue an appeal), gijgijla //gij-gij+la// (to incite action against someone).
 
41. Compound nouns and adjectives which identify something by comparison with something else are written as one word:
karnaygul (bindweed), qo'ziqorin (mushrooms), otquloq (sorrel), oybolta (pole-ax), devqomat (athletic build), sheryurak (lion hearted), bodomqovoq (almond shaped eyes), qirg'iyko'z (quail's eyes).
 
42. Compound nouns and adjectives which identify something based on its colour, taste or some other attribute are written as one word:
olaqarg'a (gray crow), qizilishton (woodpecker), achiqtosh (alum), mingoyoq (centipede).
 
43. Compound nouns and adjectives which indicate the purpose or work for which something is intended are written as one word:
kirsovun (laundry soap), qiymataxta (cutting board), tokqaychi (clippers), oshrayhon (basil), molqo'ra (animal pen), nosqovoq (snuff box), ko'zoynak (eye glasses).
 
44. Compound nouns and adjectives which identify something based on referring to its location are written as one word:
tog'olcha (a small yellow plum), cho'lyalpiz (wild mint), suvilon (water snake), qashqargul (aster).
 
45. Compound nouns indicating a ceremony, legend etc. are written as one word:
kiryuvdi (clothes washing), kelintushdi (a bride's arrival), qoryog'di (snowing), Urto'qmoq (hammering), ochildasturxon (laid out tablecloth).
 
46. Compound nouns formed by a nominal adjective construction becoming one word are written as one word:
mingboshi (leader of a thousand, a pre-Soviet official in Central Asia), so'zboshi (introduction), olmaqoqi (dried apple).
 
47. Names of places whose second part is a common noun or the word "obod" are written as one word:
Yangiyo'l, To'rtko'l, Mirzacho'l, Sirdaryo, Kosonsoy, Yangiobod, Xalqobod.
But when the second part is a proper noun they are written as two words:

O'rta Osiyo, Ko'hna Urganch, O'rtaChirchiq.

 
48. Words borrowed directly from Russian or formed by word-for-word translation are written as one word:
kinoteatr (cinema), radiostansiya (radio station), fotoapparat (camera), elektrotexnika (electrical engineering), teleko'rsatuv (television program), yarimavtomat (semi-automatic machine), bayramoldi (before a holiday), suvosti (submarine).
 
49. All types of abbreviations are written as one word - together with any suffixes added to them:
SamDU (Samarkand State University), ToshDU (Tashkent State University).
But abbreviations placed side by side are written separate:

O'z XDP MK //O'zbekiston Xalq Demokratik Partiyasi Markaziy Kengashi// (The Central Council of the People's Democratic Party of the Republic of Uzbekistan).

 
50. When one sound is pronounced two or more times the letter is repeated:
yo'o'q (No!), nimaa (What?!), himm (Yes!), ufff (ah).
 
WORDS WRITTEN WITH A HYPHEN
 
51. Word-pairs and repeated words are written with a hyphen:
el-yurt (nations and peoples), mehr-shafqat (love-dignity), qovun-tarvuz (watermelon), omon-eson (safe and sound), kecha-kunduz (day and night),yozin-qishin (year round), asta-sekin (very slowly), uch-to'rt (three or four), o'n-o'n beshta (10 to 15), bilinar-bilinmas (barely perceptible), bordi-keldi (interaction), kuydi-pishdi (cooked), don-dun (seed), oz-moz (a little), mayda-chuyda (small things), aldab-suldab (deceived), o'ylab-netib (conscientious), so'ramay-netmay (without asking), kiyim-kechak (complete attire), adi-badi (incoherent), ikir-chikir (trivial), duk-duk (knocking sound), taq-tuq (tapping sound), qop-qop (very many), ming-ming //ming-minglab// (thousands and thousands), bitta-bitta (one by one), baland-baland (very very high), chopa-chopa (long running), ishlay-ishlay (long working), yaqin-yaqinlargacha (very recently), hamma-hammasi (all of this), uy-uyiga (at/in home), ich-ichidan (inwardly).
 
Note:
 
1) Words formed from a word-pair by the addition of a suffix are also written with a hyphen:
baxt-saodatli (with happiness and bliss), xayr-xo'shlashmoq (to bid farewell).
2) If the conjunction "-u" ("-yu") occurs between the pair of words then a hyphen is placed before it and the two words are written separately:

do'st-u dushman //do'st-dushman// (friend and enemy), kecha-yu kunduz //kecha-kunduz// (day and night).

3) If main and auxiliary verbs have the same form they are written with a hyphen:

yozdi-oldi (he/she began writing), borasan-qo'yasan (you'll keep going), uxlabman-qolibman (I fell asleep).

 
52. Intensified forms of words are written with a hyphen:
qip-qizil (bright red), yam-yashil (very green), dum-dumaloq (completely round), kuppa-kunduzi (broad daylight), to'ppa-to'g'ri (exactly right), bab-baravar (identical).
 
53. If the parts of a word are connected by "-ma" or "ba-" the word is written with a hyphen:
ko'chama-ko'cha (street to street), uyma-uy (home to home), rang-barang (vari-colored), dam-badam (incessantly).
But if the components of the word are not used independently the word is written as one word:

ro'baro' (face to face), darbadar (wanderer).

 
54. Words which are borrowed directly from Russian or are formed by word-for-word translations preserve the hyphen of the original:
unter-ofitser (officer), kilovatt-soat (kilowatt-hour).
 
55. The particles "-chi", "-a (-ya)", "-ku", "-u (-yu)", "-da", "-e", "-ey (-yey)" are written with a hyphen:
sen-chi (and you?), boraylik-chi (let's go), sen-a (you?), kutaman-a (I'll wait for), bola-ya (child?), mingta-ya (one thousand?), keldi-ku (but he/she came), kelgan-u (he/she has come), yaxshi-yu (but it is okay), yaxshi-da (it is okay), qo'y-e (stop that!), yashang-e (good job!), o'g'lim-ey (oh, my son), keldi-yey (at last, he/she came).
But the particles "-mi", "-oq(-yoq)", "-ov(-yov)", "-gina (-kina,-qina)" are written together with the word to which they are joined:

keldimi? (did he/she come?), keliboq (as soon as he/she came), o'ziyoq (himself/herself), ko'rganov (but all the same he/she has seen), ko'rdiyov (but all the same he/she saw), mengina (only me), qo'shiqqina (ditty).

 
56. Ordinal numbers in Arabic numerals are written with a hyphen in the place of the suffix "-nchi" (-nth):
7-sinf (7th Form), 5-"A" sinf (the 5th "A" Form), 3- (third), 7- (seventh), 8-sinf o'quvchilari (pupils of the 8th Form), 60 yillar (60 years), 1991-yilning 1-Sentabri (the first of September 1991).
A hyphen is not used with Roman numerals representing ordinal numbers:

XX asr (20th century), X sinf (10th Form).

 
WORDS WRITTEN SEPARATELY
 
57. The parts of a compound verb are written separately:
sarf qil (spend), ta'sir et (have an influence), tamom bo'l (be finished), sotibol (buy), olib kel (bring), olib chiq (take out), miqetma (not to utter a sound).
 
58. Auxiliary and incomplete verbs are written separately from the main verb:
aytib ber (tell), olib ko'r (take and look), so'rab qo'y (send regards), ko'raqol (have a look), bera boshla (begin giving away), yiqilayozdi (he/she/they almost fell), ketgan edi (has left), ketganekan (has apparently left), ketgan emish (has reportedly left).
But if there is a change of sound between the main verb and the auxiliary verb they are written as one word:

aytaver //ayta ber// (let you say), boroladi //bora oladi// (he/she can go), bilarkan //bilar ekan// (he/she knows).

 
59. Post positions are written separately:
shu bilan (with this), soatsayin (every hour), borgan sari (any longer), buqadar (to such a degree), kun bo'yi (during the day).
But the "-la" form of the post position "bilan" (with) and the "-chun" form of the post position "uchun" (for) are written with a hyphen:

sen-la (with you), sen-chun (for you).

 
60. The following words are all written separately from the words which precede or follow them:
hamma (all), har (every), hech (no), bir (one), qay (what), u (that), bu (this/it), shu (this), o'sha (that), hamma vaqt (always), harkim (everybody), hech qaysi (no one), qaykuni (what day?), uyerda (there), shu yoqdan (from this side), o'shayoqqa (to that side).
But the following are written as one word:

birpas (one moment), biroz (a little), birato'la (completely), birvarakayiga (at once), birmuncha (several), buyon (from).

Also, if the word "qay" is combined with the words "yoq" (side) or "yer" (place), one "y" is omitted and the result is written as one word:

qayoqqa (which way), qayerda (where).

 
61. Words such as to'q (dark), jiqqa (through), tim (absolutely), liq (completely), lang (wide), och (light), which come before an adjective and intensify or diminish its force are written separately from the adjective:
to'q qizil (dark-red), jiqqaho'l (wet through), tim qora (absolutely dark), liqto'la (completely full), lang ochiq (wide open), och sariq (light yellow).
 
62. Compound numbers are written separately:
o'n bir (eleven), besh yuz (five hundred), qirq ming olti yuz bir (forty thousand, six hundred and one), bir ming yetti yuz sakson beshinchi (one thousand seven hundred and eighty-fifth).
 
63. Word combinations in which the first word is in the ablative case and the second is in the dative case are written separately:
yildan yilga (from year to year), tomdantomga (from roof to roof).
 
64. Word combinations which intensify a quality are written separately:
ko'pdan ko'p (very many), tekindantekin (free), yangidan yangi (the latest), ochiqdanochiq (perfectly clear), qizigandan qizidi (hottest).
 
65. Words in the izafat construction are written separately. This construction consists of adding "-i" to words ending with a consonant and "-yi" to those ending in a vowel:
dardi bedavo (incurable), nuqtayinazar (point of view), tarjimayi hol (biography).
But words which are written without the izafat and combinations where one or both components are not used independently in Uzbek are written as one word:

gulbeor //gulibeor// (type of flowering plant), dardisar (burden).

 
CAPITALIZATION [10]
 
66. People's first names, surnames, patronymics, pen-names or epithets begin with capital letters:
Dilbar, O'rinova, Muhabbat Majidovna, Azamat Shuhrat o'g'li, Hamza Hakimzoda, Muhammadsharif So'fizoda, Mannon Otaboy, Navoiy, Furqat, Yelpig'ichxon, Salomjon Alikov.
 
67. Names of places begin with capital letters:
Andijon, Yangiyo'l (cities), Naymancha, Buloqboshi (villages), Bodomzor, Chig'atoy (neighborhoods), Zavraq (ravine), Yarqoq (pasture), Qoratog', Pomir (mountains), Oqtepa, Uchtepa (hills), Zarafshon, Sirdaryo (rivers), Yoyilma (canal), Turkiya, Hindiston (countries).
Similarly, descriptive words in such proper nouns also begin with capital letters:

Shimoliy Kavkaz (Northern Caucasus), MarkaziyQizilqum (the Central Kizilkum).

 
68. The names of stars, planets and other heavenly bodies are written with capital letters:
Hulkar (Pleiades), Qavs (the Archer), Mirrix (Mars), Tinchlik Dengizi (the moon's surface).
When common nouns such as yer (earth), quyosh (sun), oy (moon) are used as the name of planets they are written with capital letters:

Yer Quyosh atrofida, Oy Yer atrofida aylanadi. (The Earth revolves around the sun, the moon revolves around the Earth).

 
69. Names of social-cultural or commercial enterprises, works of literature or art, food or manufactured products, and means of transport and sporting facilities are written with capital letters.
"Tong" ('Dawn', a hotel), "Saodat" ('Happy', a firm), "Navro'z" (a charitable fund), "Kamalak"('Rainbow', United Press Office), "G'uncha" ('Bud', a kindergarten), "Botanika" ('Botany', a sanatorium), "Paxtakor" ('Cotton Worker', a sports stadium), "Qutlug' qon" ('Sacred Blood', a novel), "Dilorom" (an opera), "Tanovar" (classical folk melody), "Ozodlik" ('Freedom', a monument), "Jasorat" ('Courage', a memorial), "Sino" (brand name for a refrigerator).
 
70. The first word in the names of significant historical dates and public holidays begin with capital letters:
Mustaqillik kuni (Independence Day), Xotirakuni (Memorial Day), Ramazonhayiti (the end of Ramadan), Navro'zbayrami (Spring's equinox, New Year's Day).
 
71. Every word in names of countries, highest level state organizations and titles, and international organizations begin with capital letters:
O'zbekiston Respublikasi (The Republic of Uzbekistan), Rossiya Federatsiyasi (The Russian Federation), Misr Arab Respublikasi (The Egyptian Arab Republic), O'zbekiston Respublikasi Prezidenti (The President of the Republic of Uzbekistan), O'zbekiston Respublikasi Oliy Majlisining Raisi (The Chairman of the Parliament of the Republic of Uzbekistan), Birlashgan Millatlar Tashkiloti (The United Nations Organization), Jahon Tinchlik Kengashi (The World Security Council).
In other compound names indicating lower level titles, only the first word begins with a capital letter:

Bosh vazirning o'rinbosari (deputy Prime minister), Mudofaa vaziri (Defense Minister), Yozuvchilar uyushmasi (Union of writers), O'zbekiston milliytiklanish demokratik partiyasi (The Democratic Party of National Revival of Uzbekistan).

The first word in the names of ministries, departments, industries and organizations begin with capital letters:

Sog'likni saqlash vazirligi (The Ministry of Public Health), Fan va texnika davlat ko'mitasi (The State Committee of Science and Technology), Fanlar akademiyasi (The Academy of Sciences), Tilshunoslik instituti (The Institute of Linguistics).

 
72. Every word of highest state awards begins with a capital letter:
"O'zbekiston Qahramoni" ('Hero of Uzbekistan', a rank), "Oltin Yulduz" ('Gold Star', a medal).
 
73. The first word of a sentence begins with a capital letter:
Yer tagidan Muqaddasga bir qarab oldim. O.Yoqubov. (I cast a covert glance at Muqaddas.) (author).
 
Note:
 
1) The author's first word following direct speech is written with a small letter (unless it is a proper noun).
"Bu men", - qo'rqibgina javob berdi ko'laga (O.Yoqubov). ("It's me," the rather frightening shadow answered).
2) When parts of a sentence are ennumerated by indentation a hyphen [11] is placed before each part and it is written with small letters:

Ma'muriy huquqbuzarlik to'g'risidagi ishni ko'rishga tayyorlash vaqtida tegishli organ (mansabdor shaxs) quyidagi masalalarni: 

(During the time of the preparation for the case on administrative fraud the corresponding officials decided the following:)

- mazkur ishni ko'rib chiqish uning huquq doirasiga kirish-kirmasligini 

(Is this work considered within the area of the prosecutor's competence?)

- ma'muriy huquqbuzarlik to'g'risidagi protokol va ishga oid boshqa materiallar to'g'ri tuzilgan-tuzilmaganligini

(Is the protocol and the other materials regarding administrative fraud drawn up correctly?)

-hal qiladi

(... was decided).

3) When the parts of a sentence are ennumerated using a numeral or letter in brackets the parts are written with small letters:

Hozirgi O'zbek adabiy tilining lug'at boligi asosan besh manba negizida tarkib topgan (The main lexical wealth of modern Uzbek literary language combines five main sources):

1) umumturkiy so'zlar (common Turkic words)

2) o'zbekcha so'zlar (Uzbek words)

3) tojik tilidan kirgan so'zlar (loan words from Tajik)

4) arab tilidan kirgan so'zlar (loan words from Arabic)

5) rus tilidan kirgan so'zlar (loan words from Russian)

(from the "Uzbek Language Textbook").

 
74. Abbreviations of compound names and some compounds which are not proper nouns are written with capital letters:
AQSH //Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari// (USA), BMT //Birlashgan Millatlar Tashkiloti// (United Nations Organization), AES //Atom Elektr Stansiyasi// (Nuclear Power Plant).
If an element of the abbreviation is a syllable only its first letter is capitalized:

ToshDTU //Toshkent Davlat Texnika Universiteti// (Tashkent State Technical University).

 
HYPHENATION [12]
 
75. The syllables of a multi-syllabic word which do not fit onto one line are transferred to the following line:
to'q-son (ninety), si-fatli //sifat-li// (having quality), pax-takor//paxta-kor// (man who picks cotton).
An apostrophe remains with the previous syllable:

va'-da (promise), ma'-rifat (enlightenment), mash'-al (torch), in'-om (gift).

 
76. If a word's first or last syllable consists of one letter, hyphenation is handled as follows.
1) If the first syllable of a word consists of one letter it is not left by itself at the end of a line:
aba-diy (forever), not a-badiy, eshik-dan (through the door), not e-shikdan.

2) If the last syllable of a word consists of one letter it is not transferred by itself to the following line:

mudo-faa (defense), not mudofa-a, mat-baa (printing-house), not matba-a.

 
77. When there are two or more consonants at a syllabic boundary in assimilated words, hyphenation is handled as follows
1) When there are two consonants they are transferred to the following line together:
dia-gramma (diagram), mono-grafiya (monograph).

2) When there are three consonants the first one remains on the first line and the remaining two are transferred to the following line:

silin-drik (cylindrical).

 
78. Letter combinations which represent one sound (sh, ch, ng) are transferred together:
pe-shayvon (porch), pe-shona (forehead), mai-shat (life), pi-choq (knife), bi-chiq-chi (pattern cutter), si-ngil (younger sister), de-ngiz (sea).
 
79. Abbreviations which consist of capital letters or of capital letters and syllabic components are never divided. Neither are compound numbers:
AQSH (USA), BMT (UN), ToshDU (Tashkent State University), 16, 245, 1994, XIX.
 
80. Letters are not separated from the numerals to which they belong:
5-"A" sinfi (class 5"A"), V"B" guruhi (the V"B" group), 110gr (110 grams), 15ga (15 hectares), 105m (105 metres), 25sm (25 centimetres), 90mm (90 millimetres).
 
81. Numerals which are part of a proper noun are not separated from the name:
"Navro'z-92" (festival), "O'qituvchi-91" (competition), "Andijon-9", "Termiz-16" (grades of cotton), "Boing-767" (airplane), "Foton-774" (television set).
 
82. One letter abbreviations of first names and patronymics like A.J. Jabborov, A.D. Abduvaliyev are not separated from the surname.
Similarly abbreviations such as v.b. //va boshqalar// (and others), sh.k. //shu kabilar// (and so on) are not separated from the preceding word.
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IV.TRANSLATOR'S NOTES [1-12]
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Translator's Footnotes:
 
1. Throughout the translation I have attempted to preserve Uzbek phonetic and grammatical terminology.
Uzbek vowels are usually described in international terminology as:
a:   low central/back open unrounded
o:   high back close rounded

i:   high front close unrounded

u:   high back close rounded

o':   high-mid back half-open slightly rounded

e:   high-mid front half-open unrounded

 
2. These words are pronounced with an "o" in many dialects.This statement confirms the current standard for formal Uzbek.
 
3. The sound represented by "o" in Russian and most international words is closer to o' than any other Uzbek sound and is usually assimilated as such.This statement confirms that the original spelling is preserved.
 
4. In such words the "i" is usually reduced or omitted in speech.This statement confirms the current standard that the "i" is preserved in writing or formal speech.
 
5. In this case "u" is normally reduced in speech.Again this statement confirms the current standard.
 
6. Uzbek consonants are usually described as follows:
b:   voiced unaspirated bi-labial stop
p:   unvoiced bi-labial stop, slightly aspirated before vowels
v:   voiced bi-labial / labio-dental fricative
f:   unvoiced bi-labial / labio-dental fricative

m:   voiced bi-labial nasal

d:   voiced unaspirated dental-alveolar stop

t:   unvoiced dental-alveolar stop, slightly aspirated before vowels

z:   voiced dental-alveolar groove fricative

s:   unvoiced dental-alveolar groove fricative

sh:   voiced alveo-palatal groove fricative

j:   voiced alveo-palatal affricate or voiced alveo-palatal groove fricative

ch:   unvoiced alveo-palatal fricative

r:   voiced dental-alveolar flap

l:   voiced alveolar lateral sonant

n:   voiced dental-alveolar nasal

g:   voiced unaspirated palletized velar stop

k:   unvoiced palletized velar stop, slightly aspirated before vowels

y:   voiced palletized velar sonant

ng:   voiced palletized velar nasal

q:   unvoiced post-velar stop

g':   voiced post-velar fricative

x:   unvoiced post-velar fricative

h:   unvoiced glottal fricative

 
7. Final "b" and final "d" are always devoiced.
 
8. The spelling conventions in this and the following sections are identical, as far as I am aware, to those of the current Uzbek orthography (except for section 35.3.b which clears up a question which is currently controversial).
 
9. In the Uzbek original the suffix "-ay" is not mentioned in the descriptive text but is illustrated in these examples.
 
10. The rules for capitalisation given here are, as far as I am aware, identical to those of the current Uzbek orthography. A difference from English capitalisation is that names of nationalities or languages are not capitalised.
 
11. The contradiction between the text which states that a hyphen is used and the example which has no hyphen, comes from the Uzbek original. My assumption is that a hyphen is used but I have been unable to confirm it.
 
12. The text does not specify that when syllables are transferred to the following line a hyphen is used. I have translated the concept as "hyphenation" (literally "transference") partly because I assume this is the intention and partly because I am not sure how else to express the idea in English! I have not yet been able to verify what is intended. The current orthography uses a hyphen in such cases.
 
 
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Translation © Chris Duff 1995